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At Loyola, this book has been used – sometimes coupled with a second textbook – in courses in computer security, network management. Records 1 - 30 Best Computer Network Book Gujarati Free Download: SwitchSnarf Computer Sep 11, Best network marketing books pdf in hindi. Networking Notes in Hindi - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Router: a communication computer that connects different types of networks using different . CCC Book (Course of Computer concept).
Main article: Node networking Apart from any physical transmission media there may be, networks comprise additional basic system building blocks, such as network interface controllers NICs , repeaters , hubs , bridges , switches , routers , modems , and firewalls.
Any particular piece of equipment will frequently contain multiple building blocks and perform multiple functions. Network interfaces[ edit ] An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card.
A lot of network interfaces are built-in. A network interface controller NIC is computer hardware that provides a computer with the ability to access the transmission media, and has the ability to process low-level network information. For example, the NIC may have a connector for accepting a cable, or an aerial for wireless transmission and reception, and the associated circuitry.
In Ethernet networks, each network interface controller has a unique Media Access Control MAC address—usually stored in the controller's permanent memory. The size of an Ethernet MAC address is six octets. The three most significant octets are reserved to identify NIC manufacturers.
These manufacturers, using only their assigned prefixes, uniquely assign the three least-significant octets of every Ethernet interface they produce. Repeaters and hubs[ edit ] A repeater is an electronic device that receives a network signal , cleans it of unnecessary noise and regenerates it.
The signal is retransmitted at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than meters.
With fiber optics, repeaters can be tens or even hundreds of kilometers apart. A repeater with multiple ports is known as an Ethernet hub. Repeaters work on the physical layer of the OSI model.
Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal. This can cause a propagation delay that affects network performance and may affect proper function. As a result, many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row, e. Hubs and repeaters in LANs have been mostly obsoleted by modern switches. Bridges[ edit ] A network bridge connects and filters traffic between two network segments at the data link layer layer 2 of the OSI model to form a single network.
This breaks the network's collision domain but maintains a unified broadcast domain. Network segmentation breaks down a large, congested network into an aggregation of smaller, more efficient networks. Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers.
Switches[ edit ] A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagrams frames between ports based on the destination MAC address in each frame. It can be thought of as a multi-port bridge. If an unknown destination is targeted, the switch broadcasts to all ports but the source.
Switches normally have numerous ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading additional switches. Routers[ edit ] A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing the routing information included in the packet or datagram Internet protocol information from layer 3. The routing information is often processed in conjunction with the routing table or forwarding table.
A router uses its routing table to determine where to forward packets.
A destination in a routing table can include a "null" interface, also known as the "black hole" interface because data can go into it, however, no further processing is done for said data, i.
Modems[ edit ] Modems MOdulator-DEModulator are used to connect network nodes via wire not originally designed for digital network traffic, or for wireless. To do this one or more carrier signals are modulated by the digital signal to produce an analog signal that can be tailored to give the required properties for transmission.
Network layer: Transport layer: Presentation layer: Application layer: Layers Application layer applications and processes running on the network Transport layer provides end-to-end data delivery services Internet layer makes datagrams and handles data routing Network layer provides routines allowing access to the physical network Network layer -Provides the same functionality as the physical, the data link and network layers in the OSI model.
Transport layer -Based on two main protocols: Overview -The IP protocol provides two main functionality: Decomposition of the initial information flow into packets of standardized size, and reassembling at the destination. Routing of a packet through successive networks, from the source machine to the destination identified by its IP address. Functions -Decompose the initial data to be sent into datagrams. Structure of an IP packet -The fields at the beginning of the packet, called the frame header, define the IP protocols functionality and limitations.
Structure of a TCP packet 0 2 4 8 12 Overview -Datagram protocol also built on top of IP.
Networking Notes in Hindi Uploaded by 2abijeet. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Introduction -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in some ways so as to be able to exchange data. Protocols -Define the rules that govern the communications between two computers connected to the network.
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